Panel is a circuit that used to control the electricy of any building or house or in industries from a single unit which we call panel once electricity is carried beyond our meter it is distributed to lights and appliances throughout the house by several electrical circuits. The distribution center or main panel and smaller sub panels used to control the various electrical circuits .
A distribution board (also known as panel board or breaker) panel is a component of an electricity supply system that divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuits while providing a protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit in a common enclose. Distribution panel is also referred as breaker panel, circuit breaker electrical panel, fuse box. A panel basically contains following components or elements as Neutral and hot wires ,Breaker (main breaker, double pole breaker, single pole breaker, 15 amp afi breaker), Wire gauge (12 gauge wire, 14 gauge wire, 10 gauge wire, 8 gauge or 6 gauge wire), Ground wires.
NEUTRAL WIRES :- Current flows from panel toward the load along the hot wires and returns along the neutral each hot wire’s copper tip ultimately connects to its control switch at the circuit breaker and each neutral connects to a common terminal called a bus bar .
MAIN BREAKER :- This is a on/off switch to the entire breaker panel. A 200 amp breaker is appropriate for a home upwards of 2000 square feet. Smaller buildings can use 150 amp or 100 amp, small homes and sub panels can use a little as 50 amp.
DOUBLE POLE BREAKER :- Uses the entire 240 volts available to the panel. The 15 amp and 20 amp breakers often handle base band heaters, 30 amp serve water heaters and electric dryers, 40 and 50 amp are for electric ranges and 70 amp could serve a large air conditioners or a sub panel.
SINGLE POLE BREAKER :- The 15 amp and 20 amp are all purpose breakers running everything from lights and outlets to garage door openers.
15 amp AFI BREAKER :- Arc fault circuit interrupter breakers can prevents fires caused by accidental electrical discharge.
WIRE GAUGE :-
12 GAUGE WIRE :- Common for low demand connections to light switches and outlets attached to either 15 0r 20 amp breakers.
14 GAUGE WIRE:- Too thin for everything other then 15 amp breakers under small loads.
10 GAUGE WIRE:- Appropriate for a two pole 20 amp breaker or a single pole 30 amp breaker.
8 GAUGE OR 6 GAUGE WIRE :- Used for 40 , 50 and 60 amp two pole breakers, large appliances also used for sub panels.
GROUND WIRES :- Grounding prevents a conductor not meant to carry current ( such as the metal side of a cloths dryers ) from causing injury if it’s emergized by a frayed hot wire . In a properly grounded system appliances and metal boxes connect back to the grounding bus of the breaker panel from there the system is grounded to the earth via buried ground rods .